About Danielle Spinks

Sydney-based Writer. Designer. Marketing Strategist.

How to Add Value to your E-Business

If marketing is the interface between an organization and the marketplace, the value exchange is the driver of business.

‘Value’. You hear it time and again. Value proposition, value creation, adding value…let me take a moment to just repeat a key point–

Value exchange is the driver of business.

Value can be roughly defined as the advantage that a buyer (or user if there is no transaction) perceives that they gain from you. This could be the perception of worth that a user feels they get from your product (or service or information) minus the price and effort.

In order to create, communicate and deliver value to customers, we need to locate where value can be added or unlocked all the way along the supply chain to the customer and then into after-sales support and customer service.

In this sense, Marketing Departments are, and should be, disappearing because marketing is located in each of its parts: logistics, inputs, business development, operations, communications and customer service, and is the sum of the whole.

Regis McKenna famously wrote that “Marketing is everything and everything is marketing.”

Understand what ‘Value’ means to your customers

In order to deliver value, we must first understand what Value means to your customers. It may not be the price alone. Other factors to research when developing a Customer Persona could include:

  • time
  • ease
  • convenience
  • speed
  • access
  • customization
  • physical contact with a person
  • sense of trust and security

In fact, looking at this list, where do the four Ps of marketing fit? What happened to Product, Price, Place and Promotion? Is this redundant now?

Not really. We just have a broader variety of things to think about.


Products can include information, or a service, anything we can provide in exchange for something of value to us (money, information, an audience).


Pricing now far more flexible and complicated than in years past. Products and services may be free (Dropbox, Gmail), or scaled in some way(personal, professional, enterprise), or even time-based (variable pricing for booking of tickets due to demand).

Placement / Distribution

Considerations for E-Business are much broader now. Do we have one central fulfillment centre or a network of regional centres?


It is far less acceptable to consumers to be bombarded with email marketing than it is to deluge them with television commercials. This is in part because the media are different. Television is a passive medium, the Internet is an active one. The emphasis is on ‘inbound marketing’ rather than outbound.

Authors Kalyanam and McIntyre believe that a better formula consists of 11 factors to consider.

11 Ingredients to Add a Unique Recipe Value

Product – in all of their guises mentioned above including information, music, audio, eBooks, services, and so on.

Placement- consider affiliates, other supply chain partners

Pricing – free, tiered, subscriber model, micro-payments

Promotion – online ads, sponsor links, email, public relations

Personalisation – customization, individualization, collaborative filtering

Privacy – e.g. state your policy and conformity to the relevant SPAM Act.

Customer Service – FAQ, help desks, Email, Chat rooms.

Community – chat rooms, user ratings, reviews

Website – navigation, ease of use and usefulness, user experience (UX), user interface (UI).

Security – SET, SSL

Sales Promotion – e-coupons, offers, bundling.

Do you find this helpful as an E-Marketer or is the 4 or 7Ps just as effective?



Kalyanam, K & McIntyre, S. (2002) “The e-marketing mix: A contribution to the e-tailing wars”,

Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 487-499.

McKenna, R (1991), “Marketing is Everything,” Harvard Business Review, January, 1991.




Google Ad Grants for Nonprofits and Charities

Thanks to a gentle side of the giant, nonprofit organisations and charities across many countries, including Australia, are able to apply for a Google Grant.

What is a Google Ad Grant?

This is an opportunity to promote the organisation through Google AdWords up to the tune of $10,000 US every month. In reality, it is unlikely that your ads will generate this amount of clicks, but this is the maximum on offer.

The ad links must be Search network only, so you cannot use banners or images; it is Text Ads only, I’m afraid.

All the links from the ads must also go to ONE website and they cannot be commercial in nature. If you have multiple websites, you will need to consider creating a page for each of those websites on your flagship site, and directing traffic to that page. It means an extra click, but it should be worth it. Keep in mind that this does NOT mean it’s okay to have visitors land on a page full of links to other commercial websites. Google will not be happy if you are trying to work against the spirit of its offering. Nor will anyone else who is misled by your phony philanthropy.

How to Apply

Applying is a three-step process and, like many Google products, can be confusing.  I have created hundreds of  Google Ads, but I have to admit that I failed on my first two attempts.

What you need to succeed is:

• to be a registered nonprofit or charity and be able to prove it with a notification that you are registered with the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission (ACNC) with Deductible Gift Recipient status.

• have a clear and compelling mission statement (If you don’t, write one.)

• write an essay (300-500 words) describing how the Google Ad Grant would help your organisation

First things first.

Step One: Set up a brand new Google account. You can’t use an existing one and it is preferable to use your organisation’s email address and domain if you can.

Step Two: Set-up an AdWords Account and create at least one ad Campaign and Ad Group. You can create more later, but one campaign with one or two ad groups if fine.

Step Three: Write down (or copy) the customer AdWords ID number that will be on the top right of the screen. You’ll need it soon.

It’s important that you ensure a couple of things are done precisely or you’ll get a rejection notice.

1. Set your country as United States (even if you are in Australia).

You can limit search to Australia only but don’t fiddle with the US.

2. Make sure to select ‘Search only’ and  UNCHECK the pre-ticked box that says ‘include search partners’ underneath this. Critical!

2. Make sure you choose $2.00 as your default bid per click. This is a mandatory. You cannot set Google to choose. You must enter $2 for each click.

3. You must also enter the daily limit maximum of $329. This works out to be $10,000 if it were to be fulfilled. As I said earlier, this is unlikely.

4. When it comes to Billing, DO NOT ENTER a credit card. You have to choose ‘Save and Finish Later’ or ‘Set up Billing later’. If you do enter card details, you might be liable for any ads that start running and you won’t qualify for the grant.


After you have created your ads, then you make your official application.

Have your ID number ready and your PDF notification of charity status.

Limitations of the Grant

This is a great coup for many nonprofits and has the potential to be a real driver for many if used well. But it does have limitations.

One limitation is that the links do all need to direct traffic to one website. Many organisations have multiple business units, but, fair enough, it’s free.

Secondly, anyone with experience using AdWords knows that $2 per click is not that high. In many cases your keywords will be below first page because the minimum bid will be $2.75 or $3 or more.

Thirdly, very specific keywords often generate such low search volumes that Google won’t bother including them. When you get a low search warning, you need to change it to something less specific and thereby run the risk of being outbid.

The golden zone is harder to reach when you have the $2 limitation, so more keyword phrases may be required than normal.

Lastly, the process seems easy in hindsight but the amount of time I spent trying to get it right was high. It is important that you don’t try to apply for the grant before you have created your ads. It’s also important that you don’t create your ads from an existing AdWords account. Start fresh and follow the order described in this article.

Google also has decent step-by-step procedures for making the application. I would only say ‘decent’ though, I wouldn’t say ‘terrific’ because there a minor bits left out that you need to know. I’ve tried to cover them here.

Good luck!

How to Create A Content Marketing Strategy

‘Content Marketing Strategy’ is a phrase I’m seeing everywhere. Why? Because it represents a shift in collective thinking and marketing planning around social and digital environments.

Essentially, the concept is not new, but the setting is increasingly online. The worldwide web has given birth to concepts such as ‘keyword strategy’, search engine optimisation (SEO) and search engine marketing (SEM; usually meaning ‘paid search’).

‘Content’ tends to refer to things like blogs, infographics, videos, articles, games, photos, and so on, that are shared from a website through social networks and to email lists. The point is to drive people through the sales funnel and decision-making process towards a conversion of some kind.

Here, I will take a more holistic approach and include offline as well as online communications under the umbrella term ‘content’.

Content is King

Now there’s a phrase that’s been bandied around to near death. But it’s true. Content is king because search engines like Google like fresh content and they like it to be original (no ‘curated’ content scraped from other places). That means you have to produce new material regularly and it should be packed (but not stuffed) with keywords relating to your business or industry.

We usually start with text (as in a blog or article) because this is the opportunity to explain a point using words, which are searchable and indexable by search engine robots, as opposed to images and artwork, which generally are not indexable (except the metadata e.g. alt text for images). A base, say 500-word, blog post or article can and should be repurposed and reinvented into an infographic, a media release, video, photos, etc, in order to communicate the single message in multiple ways.  All of these seemingly random and disparate pieces of creative can be orchestrated into a strategic and effective drive to a pre-determined outcome.

But first things first.

What is a Content Marketing?

Content can be anything that helps you inform, entertain, engage, remind, alleviate confusion, solve a problem, redress myths, educate, and otherwise enhance trust, credibility and salience of your offering in the mind of your target audiences.

It sounds like it applies to consumer goods, but in fact, the same concept also applies to services and nonprofit organisations.

The whole idea of Content Marketing Strategy is simply a different way of formulating an Integrated Marketing Communications plan that addresses each of your target markets (or stakeholders in the case of a charity or nonprofit) and each of their predictable stages of awareness, understanding, interest, trial, post-trial evaluation and loyalty.

If our aim is to get a group up the ladder to loyalty, we need to step them up through awareness, understanding, interest, before we can encourage them to try our offering and entreat their loyalty.

Like any good Integrated Marketing Communications campaign, we need to start with the end in mind. Here is a roadmap for creating a Content Marketing Strategy.

1. What are your Corporate Objectives?

Here you can’t be vague. We are not talking lofty, unmeasurable vision statements. We need clear hard SMART objectives.

Think Dollars. Units. Numbers. Percentages. With Deadlines. Achieve or Fail measurable black and white stuff. What’s the use of having a goal if you don’t know whether or not you’ve achieved it. Keep in mind that we are not only talking about customer and profitability goals but that of the organisation as a whole. I subscribe to the philosophy that your organisation actually has six markets.

Six Markets

In the examples above, you will notice that the corporate objectives related to more than just Customers.

It is useful to keep in mind that an organisation never has just one market, they have around six. There are six important stakeholders that need to be serviced at any time.

This is not exactly the same as the original ‘six markets’ model created by Christopher, Payne and Ballantyne (1991), but I think my version is simpler and easier to use. (Referrers and Influencers get subsumed into Partners and Suppliers).

  • Existing customers
  • New customers
  • Internal (Staff and Boards)
  • Partners & Suppliers
  • Media
  • Government

SMART Objectives


  • “To sell 1,000 Harley Davidson motorcycles by June 30, 2014.”
  • “To achieve dealer satisfaction of 80% or greater by December 31, 2013.”
  • “To achieve staff satisfaction levels of 90% by 31 December 2013.”
  • “To buy two new parts suppliers for  cost reduction before June 30 2014.”

These objectives Specific, Measurable, Aligned (with the corporate objective), Realistic, Targeted, Time-bound.It looks easy, but it’s not and it’s surprising how many organisations don’t have SMART goals.

Common Mistakes:

“To become an opinion leader in our industry” (How do you know when you’ve become an opinion leader? Instead: “To write one article about the industry for our website every week” (SMART)

I say again, Visions Statements can and should be lofty, emotive and inspiring. Objectives need to be SMART. It’s best not to have too many. Ideally, you won’t have more than five.

That said, Content Marketing Strategy starts with our SMART Goals.

2. Communication Objectives

Next, we need to attach Communication Objectives to each of our Corporate Objectives.


  • Corporate Objective: “To sell 1,000 Harley Davidson motorcycles to riders aged 22-35 by June 30, 2014.”

In order to reach this goal, we need to accomplish a few things.

  1. We need to create AWARENESS. We need to communicate that the motorcycles exist to our target market.
  2. We need to position the motorcycle brand so that it is INTERESTING to the market. The communications need to appeal and engage the sub-cultural sensibilities and drives of our market and be coded to activate recognition as ‘one of them’. We need to communicate the safety, stylishness, fuel-efficiency, or self-image appeal to our target – whichever is the key discriminating feature for our market.
  3. We need to encourage the market to TRY (e.g. test ride) the motorcycle. We need to communicate where, how and why they will love the experience.
  4. We then need to be given incentives to PURCHASE the motorcycle. We also need to remind them they have made an excellent decision and to enhance LOYALTY.  Ideally, this loyalty will be expressed through REPEAT PURCHASE and RECOMMENDATION.

Each of these communications objectives needs to be expressed in SMART terms.

You can probably think of a number of techniques to achieve these communication objectives. Posters in urban areas? Postcards in selected cool venues? Stylish, counter-cultural imagery? The Harley Davidson Club? The Harley tattoo peeking out from the corporate woman’s chest? Yuck, but you get the picture. These ideas should now be brainstormed.

3. Brainstorm your Strategies

For each of your Communication Objectives, we now need to brainstorm our tactics. We won’t be able to do all of them, we just want to start with a healthy list. Then we select just the ones that will be the most effective and efficient.



  • Facebook Advertising
  • Motorcycle shops
  • Motorcycle mechanics
  • Media Release


  • Video
  • Postcards
  • Hot images


  • Direct Mail offer
  • Advertisement


  • Extended guarantees and warranties
  • Testimonial from users
  • Sales incentive (10% discount)


  • Fuel vouchers
  • Harley Club ‘The Subversives’ Online community forum
  • Free servicing for a year
  • Magazine subscription

4. Selecting Channels and Tools

When we talk about Communications, we are talking about the promotional mix. Remember, that communications can be two-way and many of your tools can be used to get input from your markets and their feedback. Talk to them, not at them. These days, there are so many tools and channels you can use for every element of the promotional mix, many of them online. Choose which tools you think will most effectively and efficiently engage your target audience.This mix consists of ADSPP:

  • Advertising (e.g. Google AdWords, AdRoll, social media ads like Facebook, LinkedIn sponsored Inmail, Twitter Ads, other social network ads, newspaper ads, magazine ads, journal ads)
  • Direct mail (e.g. email, postcards, letters to past customers)
  • Sales promotion (e.g. discounts, incentives and offers)
  • Public Relations (e.g. media releases, articles, blogs, fact sheets, Twitter, Vimeo, YouTube)
  • Publicity (e.g. stunts, public contests, fundraising rides, Pinterest, influencer marketing)
  • Personal Selling (e.g. salespeople, field staff, testimonials, peer-to-peer endorsements)

A social network can traverse the gamut of the promotional mix. You just need to marry a network with an objective. For example, creating a YouTube video will create awareness as a quasi-form of advertising, but it also can be a form of publicity.

We may need to be working on concurrent communication objectives. For example, we’ll be monitoring and supporting our Loyals at the same time we groom our prospects into their first Harley purchase.

Mapping out the Schedule

When we have decided our shortlist, we have our strategy that fulfils our communications objectives.

We have used a very simple example. For an Organisation’s Content Marketing Strategy, this would include not just sales but other markets and the communication objectives of each.

If the plan gets overambitious and out-of-control

With six markets and all these different customer segments and different stages of the awareness, understanding and buying cycle, it’s easy to get overwhelmed. A couple of tricks to help you pull it back together are these:

A. You must make trade-offs.

It’s about effectiveness and efficiency, so less is more. You can’t be everything to everyone, so pick your mark. What are the priorities? Every organisation must make decisions and trade-offs. If you’re trying to target three segments and three stages, just focus on one segment and get the recipe right. Or delegate to different segment managers if you have them. If you don’t, consider the benefits of aligning the organisation with its objectives and restructure work roles and teams if necessary.

B. Set up for Self-service

Your website is the font of all corporate knowledge, so pack as much info here as you can. Just make it engaging and easy to find.

For example, the Media market could be satisfied by putting a Media Kit on your website with Staff Profiles and photos, Fact Sheets about services and values, your organisation’s story, a contact list, and an archive of Media Releases. Then, as part of your ongoing communications, you could @directmessage journalists by Twitter with relevant messages and links.

C. Seed the Vanguard

Even though I compressed these in my own Six Markets model, don’t get me wrong. Your ‘Influencers’ and ‘Referral markets’ are key. An analogy is an infantry to the SAS. The infantry is on-the-ground soldiers who seek out the enemy on foot to kill and capture them. The SAS (Commandos) are also on foot, but they will seek to do maximum disastrous impact with the greatest efficiency. Instead of picking off individual soldiers in a firefight, they’ll ambush and blow-up the truck that is providing food, water and munitions to those soldiers.

Your influencers are the early adopters of your technology or the key groups that your market listens to. If you want to convince GPs to do something, convince the right person at the AMA. If you want to sell millions of custom-designed jewellery, get Cate Blanchette to wear some. This way we don’t need to convince one million, just one.

5. Use a Simple Calendar or Template

The last thing we need to do is use a calendar or template to schedule our activities. It should be clear to understand and accessible to everyone. I like to keep a simple Excel spreadsheet that’s colour-coded. Each activity should be delegated to a person or team. Here is a basic example of a SMART Marketing Calendar

Added 25 April 2018: Another excellent article about how to create a documented content marketing strategy is available at NewsCred.

Remember, the basis of most of your content will always be an article, blog or web page, even if it’s in the form of the FAQ. From here we can repurpose that content into multiple items that will inform, interest, appeal to, engage, build trust and entice trial and purchase of our offering.


Merry Christmas & Marketing News 2013

christmaselephantThank you to all of our beautiful clients for your interesting projects and fabulous company this year. The last few weeks have been flat-out running social media and PR for the vast number of auctions for Sydney Convention & Exhibition Centre at Darling Harbour. The experience has been amazing – testament to the power of social networks and public relations. If you’re keen to see the basics of how simple text and display ads work, check out the Google AdWords primer below. Yes, Strategic Creative is now MVMM (My Virtual Marketing Manager) with new website www.mvmm.com.au

Google AdWords Basic Training

In terms of effectiveness and efficiency, it’s hard to go past good ol’ Google AdWords. Google prides itself on creating positive and relevant user experiences for those using its powerful search algorithms.To create simple and effective ads that are low cost and measurable is not difficult when you get a handle on what you’re doing and how Google thinks. Read On…

Pantene #Whipit Goes Viral

If you’ve checked your Facebook News Feed in the last few days, you’ve probably seen the Pantene Philippines ad that’s causing a global sensation for its radical departure from conventional shampoo advertising. Here’s my take on why it works (partly) and how you could emulate its strategy. Read On…

Holiday Hours

The virtual office will be closing from 21st December 2013 to 06 January 2014. Wishing you a wonderful holiday season where you can relax and do the things you enjoy the most. See you in 2014.

Best wishes, Dani & the Elves.


Google AdWords Basic Training

In terms of effectiveness and efficiency, it’s hard to go past good ol’ Google AdWords.

Google prides itself on creating positive and relevant user experiences for those using its powerful search algorithms.

To create simple and effective ads that are low cost and measurable is not difficult when you get a handle on what you’re doing and how Google thinks.

Getting Started

After you log into your Google Account, you will see the Dashboard.

To create your ads, click Campaigns and then the Green button below +Campaigns.

Here you can choose the type of ad. You can reach the most people by using Search Display network and Display Select the Search Network only (meaning organic search and search partners sites) or the Display Network only.

There are a number of different types of ads you can run. This brief article will look at running simple Text Ads.

Campaign Structure

At the top we have Campaigns and under that Ad Groups and within Ad Groups we have Ads. Each Ad Group consists of one or more Ads that use the same keywords.

For example, if you are running a Summer Campaign for your swimming club, you would choose a New Campaign. You may then have various different ‘themes’ to promote, such as kids swimming lessons, squad activities, seniors swimming, and water polo. Each of these would become a separate Ad Group. Within, for example, the Water Polo Ad Group, we could then have a series of discrete Ads, such as Registration, the swim club’s equipment for sale, and a video on how to play.

We create a New Campaign, and then New +Ad Group and enter our text and keywords. There are character limits if you are running a Text Ad. Be specific. Think about what the user is directly seeking.

Targeting & Budgeting

You can also set your targeting by country and age.

You set a Daily budget and a per bid budget for each keyword. Popular keywords will cost more, but since they are generic, be sure to include very specific keywords relevant to what you do.

Display and Destination URLs
In your ad, you type in a Display URL and a Destination URL. The display shows what the link will look like, the destination is the actual page the click will direct to.

You can use a general website name in your Display URL e.g. www.greenswimclub.com and then the destination page to www.greenswimclub/water-polo/registration/summer

This is to reassure visitors that the link is going to a page on the Display site. If your ad goes to an external or third-party site, the Display needs to accurately represent where the link will go.

You cannot initiate a program or activate anything through the link.

How Bidding Works

Google doesn’t just place the top Ad from the highest bidder. It has refined its algorithms to try and ensure the user is going to have the bed possible user experience. Deeper pockets don’t necessarily provide this. From an advertiser perspective, Google provides you with the lowest price possible to display your ad.

To place your ads and determine the real cost, the equation is:
Maximum Bid x Quality Score = AdRank. The AdRank then determines the position of your ad and the cost.

Having a high Quality Score is really important here.

The Quality Score is mostly made of:
1. your click-through rate CTR)
2. RELEVANCE your ads keywords to your landing page
3. the LANDING page itself


How to improve your Quality Score

Here are some best practices:

Too few Ad Groups?
Google likes relevant, tightly knitted themes. It’s about being really specific, not generic. We need to think like a searcher who genuinely wants to find our solution. Do your keyword research. There are many aids within AdWords to suggest keywords, which you can select and deselect. The specificity and relevance will affect CTR.

Is the Landing page relevant to the keywords in your ad?
Your landing pages need to have content that contains keywords you are using, or the visitor is going to feel cheated. The content should be original not identical to other pages, and specific to each ad.

The Landing Page Itself
The page itself must show good navigation. Google ‘bots’ will scour the page to determine that there are means of escape for the visitor and useful, relevant information such as Privacy policies, Terms of Service, links to About and other pages.

Navigability is key. The old squeeze page you so often used to see – the big red IMPACT script headline and no links other than a big BUY at the bottom, well, Google hates these. Google also hates pop-ups or pop-unders and considers the page load speed and will penalise a slow loader. That means making sure your site isn’t hosted too far away. For example, pages on a US server will need to travel to the Pacific Ocean in order to load.

Video Ads

Did you know you can now choose Online Video and link your AdWords account to your YouTube account (which is also owned by Google)? The video option allows you to track engagement and conversion data for your promoted videos.

Playing with Google AdWords is fun and you learn as you go.

Campaign Deconstruction: Pantene Whipit

While checking your Facebook News Feed, you may have come across the Pantene #Whipit ad that has now officially ‘gone viral’.

In case you missed it, here it is again.

 About the Pantene Ad

Filmed as a TV Commercial for the Philippines market, the Pantene ad has caused a global sensation for its radical departure from conventional shampoo advertising.

Taking a leaf from Dove’s Real Beauty campaign, (which has been tremendously successful), Pantene confronts gender bias and sexism in the corporate workplace and encourages women to shine.

#Whipit Campaign Background

The inspiration for the campaign came from an October 2013 study that revealed that women were still experiencing double standards and gender bias “even in progressive Metro Manila” Rappler.com.

The ad features corporate females doing identical tasks (presentations, running meetings, crossing the road, working late at night) and being perceived differently (boss / bossy, dedicated / selfish).

Pantene partnered with active social news website, Rappler (in the Philippines). Rappler’s mission is to generate smart conversations through uncompromising journalism where “stories inspire community engagement and digitally fuelled actions for social change.”

The partnership resulted in a social marketing campaign tagged #Whipit in order to try and:

a) subvert these perceptions (Rappler), and

b) make some money selling product (Pantene).

Pantene with agency BBDO Guerrero Manila took a radical departure from the standard shampoo ad script, which often makes women feel disempowered because no shampoo really creates the preternatural shine (or the fabulous good looks and attractive glances) that the ads suggest.

Instead, BBDO and Pantene have taken an empowerment approach and focused on successful women (with good hair) in corporate situations.

The titles demonstrate the faulty perceptions about females in the workforce compared to men.

It has succeeded creating a relevant, albeit tenuous, link to its haircare products and value proposition of shiny hair. Shiny hair, shine as a person. Get it? [Hmm, sort of]. Quality of the product / inequality of the situation.

The ad ran for a month or two before a mention by Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg saw it rocket to worldwide popularity.

“This is one of the most powerful videos I have ever seen illustrating how when women and men do the same things, they are seen in completely different ways,” Sandberg wrote on her official Facebook page.

There are critics. Some say the theme conflicts with the product itself.


The results of the campaign are not available yet, as it still ricocheting through cyberspace.

It has generated thousands of tweets and nine million YouTube views.

Personally, I like the ad and for something that has only ever aired in the Philippines, it’s what I would call a ‘good spend’. I think it has generated smart conversations and created popular awareness about the differences in perceptions, including from and by women.

It also makes me think that Pantene really is a smarter product than others and reflects my self-concept, which is pretty critical when marketing things like this. Like jeans for twenty-somethings, it’s not about the denim, it’s about how you see yourself and how you want others to see you. In marketing parlance, we call it the ‘transformational appeal’ and it can be more effective than an ‘informational appeal’ as long as you can make it past the rationality hurdles.

That’s why I also like the ad from a marketing communications perspective, because it does what many brands try and fail to do well, which is successfully enter emotional and higher-order territory and favourably reflect the target market back to themselves.

Entering Emotional Territory

Apple was initially subversive (watch the famous Superbowl ad styled on Orwell’s 1984 here), now it’s creative and inspirational. Nike uses the ‘power of the individual’ (watch). Dove is ‘Real Beauty’ (this is beautiful).

Even though I find some of the quasi-spiritual underpinnings of certain fast moving consumer goods eye-rolling, they can be enormously powerful. Archetypes and storytelling; quests, ideals and journeys are universal and deeply felt.

They work because you can add have more nuts, thicker cream, a cheaper price, an easier payment system, but so can your competitors. There is no real differentiation and therefore no real loyalty. When you own emotional territory, it is very difficult for a competitor to displace this. You’re on a higher plane. You ‘connect’.

As Services businesses, it’s easier for us. There is always a deeper, laddered down benefit of what you do. Always. The hidden, but powerful value proposition may be security. Confidence. Assurance. Romance. Idealism. A means to express individual self-identity.

If you need help laddering down to your higher order benefit, send me an email.

Also what do you think of the Pantene #Whipit ad? Love it or loathe it?







“For her Birthday Last Year”

Advertisement for a Children’s Savings Account

For her birthday last year,

money wizard, Donald Trump,

gave his mother:

an island in the Carribbean,

a red Ferrari convertible

and a two-hour foot massage

from Robert Redford

in a hot spa.

(Isn’t it time you opened your child’s MoneyBeans Account?)

MoneyBeans – Teaching children money skills



cloud computing ad copywriting and design

“Put your business in your own hands

Print Ad for Cloud Computing

Last year we did what we had always done.

We bought a computer for each of the staff and some software – email, word processing, the complex analysis package we use.

And licences for the software. And a server. And a separate room for the server because Brenda thought it made a droning, buzz sound.

Servers need to be kept cool anyway. Or they fry.

So we got a second server in case one fried. The power bills went through the roof. A big bank loan paid for it all, but like a new car you drive out of the showroom it was all  obsolete in, hmm, a week?

Security. I wanted to hire an IT person to look after security, but we’re small. I made Jimmy wear the IT hat instead. I just hoped he wouldn’t stuff it up too bad.

This year, I’m doing things differently. I’m keeping my feet on the ground and sticking my head in the clouds.

I want bullet-proof confidence and minimal expense. We’re getting the latest software, the best servers, top-end security. And we’re paying for nothing but a monthly subscription fee. It’s all in the cloud.

The great thing is that my smart phone is now like a mini-work station. So now I spend half the day in the office and the other half at the Milk Factory or Elephant Boy Cafe. These are my productive hours.

There is one downside, though. It’s created a fair bit of empty space in the office. Which means we need plants.

Lots of plants.

Find our of cloud computing might be good for your business…


ace internet print ad

“T3chnologicallz ChaJJenged?

Print Ad for Internet Service Provider

At ACE, we use the most cutting-edge Internet and telephony technology.

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Small Business. Super-sized Brand

There are a lot of components that make a brand. In order to make a powerful and durable brand, you have to put in the work. It’s not design work, not initially.

But it boils down to your vision and your understanding of your customer and your knowledge of the market and the other players in your arena.

Let’s start with Vision

So what is vision?

It’s the thing that initially filled you with inspiration to start your business. Continue reading

Case: Sport Sponsorship Screening & Planning

A Hypothetical Case Study of Green&Black’s and the Highland Fling

The following is a plausible, hypothetical case study of a sport sponsorship partnership, which uses emerging best practice principles including sponsorship-linked marketing, co-marketing alliances, and image as well as values transfer. No permissions have been gained and assumptions have been made with respect to some internal company information. As such, specific information in this report should not be considered factually correct for any purpose other than understanding how sport sponsorship planning could be conducted. I hope it is helpful.

Executive Summary

Green & Black’s premium chocolate and the mountain bike marathon event, Highland Fling, share many things in common including a target market / fan base as well as brand personality fit and strategic objectives. This report shows how the two organisations can serve the objectives of each other in a three-year partnership based on collaboration between people, resources, skills and capabilities, in order to affect a 3% increase in Australian chocolate market share for Green & Blacks by growing the popularity of the Highland Fling and the esteem of Australian ‘serious leisure’ cyclists.

Situation Analysis


Green & Black’s (G&B) is a brand of organic, free trade chocolate that began as a small enterprise and is now owned by Kraft. It operates in the chocolate and confectionary category, specifically, the premium chocolate segment.

The Australian chocolate market is worth $2.7 billion p.a. Average Australian consumption is 4.4 kg per year. The market is saturated with predominantly milk chocolate products and rivalry is intense. The market is mature, but the premium segment is in growth at 2.3% p.a. (IBISWorld, 2013). Seventy five per cent of purchases are from retail consumers. Net profit margin per product is 6.8%, meaning that G&B will make 59 cents on every $4 100gm bar. The market is stable and is considered “recession proof” (Henschen, 2008).


G&B has an advantage of being part of the Kraft group from whom it can utilise resources, marketing expertise and packaging economies-of-scale if required. The G&B management controlling the Australian market is located in Dunedin, New Zealand. Because of its Fair Trade status, G&B enjoys a high degree of autonomy from Kraft’s operations (World Chocolate Guide, 2013).


Competition is from Kraft (who owns Cadbury and their extensive product lines) at 49.1% share; Nestle (21.5%) and Mars (14.3%). In the premium segment, the market leader is Lindt (5.8%); Ferrero (4.5%) and then Darrell Lea (4.1%). G&B has less than 1 per cent share (0.7%) (IBISWorld).


There are two groups of G&B customers. Young, affluent urbanites and everyday luxury buyers, generally mothers. Taste and quality are the key determinants for both.

More consumers are increasingly attracted to dark chocolate because of the health benefits, which include high anti-oxidants, low sugar and no dairy, as well as an increase in consumer concern about ethics and sustainability of food. The segment has expanded by 65% since 2002 (Market Research.com, 2013).

Global Positioning

The cacao for G&B’s product is not sourced from the Ivory Coast of Africa where the majority of the world’s chocolate comes from using child slave labour. It is sourced from village workers in Mayan village, Belize. Here, the beans are “picked, dried, roasted on a hot plate over a woodfire and ground by hand in a machine resembling a large household mincer” (Purvis, 2006). The result of the G&B enterprise has meant that 70% of children in outlying villages now have secondary education compared to 10% before G&B began operating there.

G&B positions its products on taste with organic and Fair Trade status as supporting elements. The brand’s name refers to ‘Green’ being the environmental and ethical dimension of the products and ‘black’ refers to the high cocoa content, a hallmark of authentic chocolate (Green & Black’s Website, 2013).

G&B has historically resisted ‘push’ strategies in favour of a philosophy that is about having consumers ‘discover’ the brand and then drive word of mouth. G&B is noted for its distinct brand story. It won the Worldaware Business Award in 1994 for its and became the recipient of the UK’s first ever Fair Trade brandmark (Burkitt & Zeally, 2007).

Internationally, the brand recognises that its Fair Trade status and organic attributes are not inimitable and copycat brands with the same attributes are appearing. As a result, G&B now accentuates its ‘playful’ brand personality with image-driven short copy ad campaigns (below) that ensure its position in the mind of the consumer is as a chocolate for ‘grown-ups’ rather than families (Cadbury) and teenagers (Mars).

Figure 1. G&B UK Advertising Campaign

Green and Black's Print ads


Corporate Objective

For KRAFT, the place of Green & Black’s in the category portfolio is to take the niche alternative, healthy, Fair Trade choice for ‘grown ups’: the affluent and ethical Australian consumer.

The goal is to increase Green & Black’s Australia market share from 0.7% to 3.0 % before June 30 2016. That will increase net revenue from $38,161,200 to $163,548,000 assuming the margin remains consistent.

Marketing Plan Objectives and Positioning

Expansion into Australia has proven difficult. The brand is relatively unknown and the distribution is solely through supermarkets. The core problem is brand awareness and lack of product trial. A SWOT/TOWS is below and outlines the strategic situation.

• There’s growing demand for Dark Chocolate for health benefits• World Vision promoting ethical suppliers alternative to ‘blood chocolate’• Sport sponsorship increasingly explored by manufacturers• Branding and Promotional activities stimulate product trial.


• New dark chocolate lines from competitors are imminent.• KRAFT’s Cadbury products moving to fair trade and may cannibalise.• Branding and promotional tactics like Mars ‘super-size’ products• Input price rises (cocoa and sugar)
• Fair Trade Status / Organic Status.• Powerful history and brand story• Product trial is almost always very favourable• Owner, KRAFT, can provide resources if requested • Use sport sponsorship to increase awareness and product trial.• Infuse brand story into promotional packaging• Use a sponsorship vehicle to promote the ethics of the products. • Pre-empt new competition through increasing awareness of story and origins.• Use freebies or samples to encourage later purchase. 
• Relatively unknown in Australia• Distribution solely through supermarkets so trial is not easy• Consumers very brand loyal to competitors. • Awareness-building will help tap the dark chocolate interest.• Sponsorship will encourage selection at supermarket (75% impulse purchase). • Earlybird awareness of the brand and story may thwart new line penetration• Direct online store may reduce overheads in event of input price increase


Marketing Objectives

In order to achieve the corporate goals, G&B must significantly increase awareness and generate favourable attitudes of brand liking and preference. Given the positioning strategy, the brand seeks to become embedded in communities.

Sport Property Selection

In order to maintain the global brand’s positioning strategy of below-the-line communications, as well as to generate reach to build awareness and be cost-effective, G&B has reviewed its TOWS strategic options and decided to sponsor a sporting event. The sport choice selected was Cycling. This is due to the fewer instances of clutter in this sport than other mainstream sports in which sponsorship is saturated.

Cycling is the fourth most popular sport in Australia. Fourteen per cent of men and nine per cent of women participate in cycling activities and this constitutes approximately 1.89 million Australians (Brown, O’Connor, Barkastos, 2009).

The strategy for G&B is to generate grassroots awareness and product trial through a sport sponsorship framework, preferably one that supports and reinforces G&B core value proposition of being sustainable, alternative, ‘grown-up’ and high quality.

The criteria for the sport property are:

• the opportunity should be unique or novel

• the partnership should be of value to both brand and sport by deepening connections with customers / fans

• there should be opportunity to make a significant contribution to the sport

• the sport should offer adequate exposure

Two events were scrutinized: Tour Down Under, the professional road cycling event and 110km mountain bike marathon Highland Fling in NSW Southern Highlands.

Both events were screened using the Sports Sponsorship Screening Instrument (Irwin, 1995). Both share a good fit in terms of target market / sport participants in that they are 20s-40s, educated, ethically-minded and reasonably affluent consumers.

Tour Down Under was eliminated for three reasons:

1) With over 30 incumbent partners, the excessive clutter  in terms of the number of sponsors as well as the confusing array of sponsorship / partnership ‘levels’ and in-kind supporters is unlikely to achieve cut-through (Amis, Slack & Berrett, 1999).

2) Were G&B to achieve any cut-through for its investment, it is likely to be mistaken in the mind of a consumer / spectator for another brand in the chocolate category with a larger share of voice (e.g. Lindt, Mars or Nestle) (Cornwall, Weeks & Roy, 2005).

(3) Given the professionalism of the event and the skillful use of social media and broadcast opportunities, little added value can be given by applying G&B’s resources and capabilities

4) Given the frenetic schedule of the event organisers, it is unlikely that the desired level of inter-organisational cooperation and collaboration would be available to see such a sponsorship form the basis of a medium-term (minimum 3 year) partnership.


SWOT – Highland Fling

The Highland Fling is an off-road mountain biking (MTB) marathon event that has been running for nine years. It attracts around 5,000 participants and spectators each year and attracts minimal sponsorship clutter, and little media. Event participants come from the Southern Highlands, Sydney, Canberra, Wollongong, interstate and some from overseas (Wild Horizons, 2013).

The event seeks a new major sponsor to whom it grants naming rights each year. There is little evidence that the sponsorships have been well-leveraged by sponsoring brands. Event marketing is left to the event organisers where there is limited marketing or media experience. That said, it is likely that extensive naming and management cooperation can be gained, facilitating a mutually rewarding long-term relationship.

Strengths• Highly loyal participants• Full naming rights• Close to Sydney, Wollongong and Canberra

• Willingness to collaborate

• Strong congruence with target market & fans

• Strong market orientation and connections with cycling community internationally

• Carbon neutral

• Minimal sponsor clutter


Weaknesses • Smaller event (5,000) annually• Long registration queue• Previous sponsors have not leveraged their commitments

• Most of the tracks in bushland (no spectators)

• Website



Opportunities• Sampling• Extend spectatorship through media• Online registration




Threats / RisksAmbushing• Major incident (accident)• Degenerative behaviour



Although the Highland Fling is not currently a major event, it presents a major opportunity to become so with a vast but as yet untapped potential to generate traditional news and broadcast coverage and, more importantly, online viral reach.

Enabling this lift in event profile would benefit the sport property and esteem of its highly engaged fan / participants, but also raise awareness and liking of the G&B brand. It also meets the criteria of inter-team management collaboration, presents an event of rare or uniqueness, and the opportunity for a powerful image transfer (Ferrand and Pages, 1999).

Utilising the inherent depth of loyalty and passion with G&B’s complementary resources and capabilities, a distinct competitive advantage can be developed as has been seen in the case of firm Owens-Corning in Canada facilitating the increase in popularity of freestyling skiing (Amis et al, 1999). This would be mutually advantageous and result in G&B being perceived as a vital and trusted member of the group, rather than ‘wallpaper’ as it may with another event.

Target Market / Audience Fit

The Highland Fling event fans tend to fit the ‘New School’ psychographics (Argus, 2013):

– Cycling enthusiasts

– Predominantly male but strong female participation

– Tertiary educated with a professional background and mid-high income

– Aged from mid-20s to mid-40s with most in mid-30s

Across this spectrum of participants there are multiple motives for participation including competitiveness, fitness, risk and adventure (Crum, 1998).

This event is perceived as a ‘hard core’ cycling event in the “serious leisure” cycling category”. The motivations for participation are “social, embodiment, self-presentation, exploring environments and physical health outcomes” (Brown, Trent & O’Connor, 2008). The cycling fraternity is a tribe where “the importance of the activity and the level of participation is high” (Bull, 2006).

Group affiliation is high. Highly identified attendees and spectators are likely to view any sponsor as being part of the ‘in-group’, meaning there is a high degree of image transfer to G&B. This is supported by “Self-esteem theory” which posits that the motivation begins with ‘belonging’ before it moves to the ‘personal’ (Burke and Stets, 2000).

Considering the sport participation ‘escalator’ (Mullin, Hardy, Sutton, 2000), participants of this over 18s event can be considered highly engaged. However, there is space for different levels of engagement with the shorter races, as well as a gap for 14-17 year olds to ensure their ongoing involvement and ascendency in connections with both the sport and the brand.

Perceived Match

The Highland Fling begins in Bundanoon, a village that became Australia’s first town to voluntarily ban bottled water. It has also been involved in a long community standoff with Coca-Cola who wishes to conduct aquifer drilling in its pristine national parks. This legacy suits G&B’s ‘alternative’ positioning.

The archetypal elements of this story (David and Goliath / the power of community) resonate with the history and brand of G&B, given its positive impact on the Mayan village of Belize and the resultant income and educational advancements this has brought to that developing region.

Personality Congruence

G&B brand is known for an increasingly irreverent personality in other markets around the world. It forgoes above-the-line advertising and promotions for creative, minimal print ads, sponsorships and experiential sampling encounters.

Highland Fling is also known for an irreverent personality. The 110 km race is the full fling and the shorter 14 km race is the casual fling. The double entendres fits with the in-house style of G&B.

Sponsorship Objectives

For G&B, brand awareness is very low. The objectives of the sponsorship are:

  1. To increase brand awareness and recognition to 10% of the Australian market by 2016.
  2. To stimulate interest and desire for G&B due to the congruence with the sport values and aims for 50% of those who are brand aware by 2016.
  3. To exploit the event for product sampling, especially by those identified as opinion leaders.
  4. After the inaugural year, to use the sponsorship as a promotional vehicle for brand extensions including the 14 flavours of chocolate blocks available in other markets but not yet introduced into Australia (Cornwall, 2008).
  5. To increase G&B product market share by 1% per annum until it reaches 3% in June 2016.

Sponsorship Strategy

To achieve these objectives, the strategy is to:

  1. Secure Naming Rights for the event and exploit on-site opportunities for association leveraging, articulation and exposures.
  2. To use humour in the creative executions and product sampling to “seed the vanguard” (Dye, 2000) within the sport by identifying and nurturing influencers and opinion leaders.

Communications Budget

The total investment in the sponsorship itself will be $200,000 per annum, comprised of a $50,000 initial investment and accompanied by $150,000 to leverage the associations and build the event’s profile. The expected duration of the partnership is 3 years.

Sponsorship Theme

Ferrand and Pages (1996) remind us that we need to be simple in order to cut through, and to put our focus on the collective rather than the individual, in order to generate feelings of connection and tribe. The sponsorship will use the term ‘Tasty Fling’ to emphasise the exciting and decadent aspects of the chocolate and the event.

Leveraging and Activation


The event manager of Highland Fling is Wild Horizons. This company has deep insights into the cycling community, opportunities to access this group, and is owned and led by Huw Kingston, a high profile key influencer of the serious leisure cycling community internationally.

In preliminary discussions with Wild Horizons, a decision to undertake a co-marketing alliance and adopt a Resource Based View (Amis, Pant & Slack, 1997) whereby the complementarities of both organisations could be manipulated to form an event and brand competitive advantage.

A cross-functional ‘Sponsorship Activation’ team within G&B will be developed with key members of marketing, IT and human relations. This team will work with Wild Horizons to assist manage the event program and the alignment of both parties’ objectives over the next three years.


An initial event blueprint (Bitner, Ostrom & Morgan, 2007) was devised that documents each event registrant’s actions and movement and the backend processes involved. It also documents physical evidence requirements and opportunities. This has formed the basis for the development of a co-marketing alliance as well as the investment items for G&B.

An initial review of past years’ feedback and results with the Wild Horizons team has found overall very positive experiences and emotional bonding between participants and within the event. There were the exceptions of two perceived main drawbacks, however – the physical registration process resulting from a lack of online payment gateway and transport inconveniences.

Resources and Capabilities

Wild Horizons’ Role

Wild Horizons’ role will be to manage and co-ordinate the event and provide a team of on-site staff to facilitate the smooth execution. They will also manage the first-aid, camping area and onsite food and beverage stalls as usual. As they have an excellent market orientation in terms of understating the fan base and sport industry, they will be advisors as to the effectiveness of communication elements through the use of a ‘test marketing’ group they formulate. This group will also be used as an advisory panel for the sponsorship partnership and serve as idea generators.

Technology – Website and CRM

G&B will lend IT capabilities in the design and installation of an updated Highland Fling website with CRM and online event registration and payment portal. This will capture registrant’s details, enable ongoing communications and avoid the long registration queue identified in the blueprinting.

Design – Registration Kit

Sent to each registrant will be the route map, detailed instructions as to how to arrive in Bundanoon and a sticker with their competition Number and co-branding. . There will also be a G&B gift sample. The route map will be designed by G&B marketing department and feature chocolate iconography.

Event Staging – Race Stage Naming

The early stage of the course is flat and classified ‘easy’. The white chocolate will brand the section as ‘an easy fling’; the wood-chipped line section of the course will be the ‘crunchy fling’ (hazelnut); the muddy, slippery section will be ‘butterflinger’ (butterscotch); the section with sharp turns and tight corners will be the ‘spicy fling’ (chilli) and the dimmer, rainforest section will be ‘decadent fling’ (dark chocolate 85%).

Online Live Broadcast

Due to the limitations on the event participation numbers, the reach can be extended though social and mainstream media. Twenty riders will be selected by Wild Horizons to be outfitted with Go-Pro video cameras which will be used to capture live footage of the event and fed to the YouTube live streaming.

Social Media

G&B will reinforce Highland Flings social media promotion of the event with their own and enable user-generated content from the event to be uploaded to the new website.

Green & Black’s Technical Quality Award

The trickiest hairpin turn in the heart of the race will be kept under HD video surveillance and an award for Technical Quality will go to the participant who makes the most adept maneuver of this junction. The footage will also be repurposed for media broadcast opportunities for commercial programs including Sports Tonight, Fox Sports and nightly news programs around the country. Other video clips will be used in the YouTube live broadcast.


Three stills photographers from G&B will rove around the event and capture images for news publications, magazine articles, G&B advertising campaigns (in which rivers of mud may be used to resemble chocolate) and social media.


The three principle corridors that event participants are likely to come travel through are from Sydney, Canberra and Wollongong.

To assist in the comfort and convenience (and thereby create positive disconfirmation of the overall event experience and brand liking), some luxury coach services will be provided for the 90 minutes journey the day before the event and run from Sydney Airport, Canberra and Wollongong to Bundanoon.

App and Game

In order to move the younger target customers and fan base along the escalator of brand and event awareness and liking, an app based on the event will be designed for the free download of a targeted group of 14 – 17 year olds.




In Australia, the course stages named after products will have packaging temporarily reflect the event staging names. The brand stories of both organisations will be synthesized into an event narrative and printed on the inside of the packaging also. QR codes and web links will lead to richer online stories and interaction opportunities.


G&B will take out full-page ads in RevolutionMTB magazine, Cyclist magazine and some online advertising in cycling-related websites in the six months leading up to the event.

Along the main transport route for event participants, five billboards will promote the event, including three along the M5 Motorway.

Public Relations / Publicity

The Sponsorship Activation Team alongside the Wild Horizons team will generate Media Releases about the event partnership and the higher-order congruence of conscience of both parties.

The nature of World Vision’s work to end ‘blood chocolate’ will be showcased on both the websites of the event parties and the event itself. World Vision can be also be included in these communications with information about the chocolate from the Ivory Coast of West Africa (World Vision Website, 2013) and the disastrous impact that is having on the lives of many in those areas.

Ideally, both will make an investment donation with World Vision whereby the ethical dimension of the partnership may be reinforced.




In order to proactively thwart ambushing attempts, Wild Horizons will liaise with accommodation venues in the event proximity and G&B will supply them with friendship hampers for their staff. Private landholdings on which the race event takes place will also be sent gift thank you hampers by G&B via Wild Horizons to help inhibit these parties as targets of either ambush marketing or event sabotage.


Videos featuring the footage of the event will be annotated by G&B’s marketing team and feature irreverent commentary. No advertising will be permitted on the clips to avoid any intentional or unintended promotion of competitor or other brands.

Joint Communications

The event organisers will also use their knowledge and connections with the cycling and MTB community to promote G&B event partner.


In order to accurately measure the impact of the co-marketing alliance, some measurement research will be undertaken prior to the event and after the event each year.

Brand awareness levels will be gauged through surveying. As this has been criticized as being an inadequate measure (Abratt & Grobler, 1999), this will be accompanies by richer qualitative data, including focus groups and perceptual mapping, also.

These interviews and surveys will be conducted before and after the event with random samples of adults in the target market. This will be done to measure the amount of processing that has occurred in terms of image transfer and concomitant emotional and cognitive benefits associated with the brand (Gwinner & Eaton, 1999)

Sales figures will determine the market share and any changes before, during and after the event.

Each year, it is expected that the group team will evaluate the effectiveness of the sponsorship and work together in a weekly updates for the following year’s activities. Improvements and modifications to the program can be made on a flexible basis.

Finally, the event sponsorship will be evaluated in terms of what other types of investment (such as advertising) may have achieved instead.

Assumptions and Limitations

This sponsorship plan assumes that the Highland Fling event will continue for a further three years in order to achieve the 3-year strategic objectives.

By blueprinting the procedures and activites undertaken by each team independently and together, it is possible that any changes in the management teams can be mitigated and successful results carried over to future years.

It is assumed that the ownership of Green & Black’s (KRAFT) will not pose a negative association. It is possible that some may construe G&B’s partnership with Highland Fling and World Vision as disingenuous and exploitative, however, little can be done to minimise this risk other than keeping true to the brand origins story and continuing discrete business operations.

In the event that the sponsorship partnership is very effective, emerging sports that share a close congruence with the target market / fan base and shared values will be considered to build the G&B brand even further.


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Understanding the Rise of China

British Economist Martin Jacques has said that the “west is rapidly losing influence”  and that the world will be an increasingly unfamiliar place to those not conversant with the changes that are taking place.

Did you know that 90% of the world’s population live in developing countries?

That 70% of the world’s population is under the age of 25?

Continue reading

Making Sport Sponsorships that Work

This article looks at the challenges of creating an enduring sports sponsorship partnership. The difficulties involve finding ‘strategic fit’, articulating this well and then leveraging and activating the association for both parties. The investment – both financial and in-kind – is seen as a significant stumbling block as is the need to thoroughly enmesh two separate organisations and proactively align their goals and activities. Continue reading